A stud is a small post that is most often made of sawn lumber about 4” by 5” in girth and extends vertically from a sill up to a girt or from a lower girt to a higher girt or wall top plate. Barns with vertical siding tend not to have studs, whereas barns with horizontal siding, or clapboards, do, in order to have a place on which to nail the horizontal siding. Studs in barns are usually sawn timbers and are mortised into the sills, girts and plates, often on two-foot centers. In this sense they were the precursors of stick framing. Sometimes older barns were refitted with studs in order to allow for changing from vertical to horizontal siding. This seemed to happen when wide board siding was not as available for vertical board and batten siding and barns were re-sided horizontally.